CART, Captioning & Interpretation

Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) and Captioning

Communication access realtime translation (CART), also called open captioning or realtime stenography or simply realtime captioning, is the general name of the system that stenographers and others use to convert speech to text. CART is useful for making communication accessible to those who are deaf or hard of hearing, as realtime speech-to-text serves many with hearing loss and deafness. The text produced by the CART service can be displayed on an individual’s computer monitor, projected onto a screen, combined with a video presentation to appear as captions, or otherwise made available using other transmission and display systems. The text produced by the CART service can be displayed on an individual’s computer monitor, projected onto a screen, combined with a video presentation to appear as captions, or otherwise made available using other transmission and display systems. CART helps make event, speech, courtroom, classroom, workshop, seminar, church service, or meeting accessible to people who have a hearing loss. Hearing accessible technology and services are crucial to creating an inclusive event so that everyone can participate, regardless of how well they hear. When possible, an audio component should be considered as well: hearing assistive technology such as induction loops, FM, and infrared systems combined with CART provide the highest level of accessibility. Even people with good hearing sometimes struggle to comprehend completely, especially in loud or noisy environments. CART helps those people, for whom English is a second language. And for people with significant difficulties hearing, CART can mean the difference between staying home and staying engaged.

Access Realtime Translation (CART)

Communication access real-time translation, also called open captioning or real-time stenography, or simply real-time captioning, is the general name of the system that court reporters, steno captioners and voice writers, and others use to convert speech to text

C-Print® is a speech-to-text (captioning) technology and service developed at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology. The system successfully is being used to provide communication access to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing in many programs around the country. In addition to educational environments, C-Print also can be used in business and community settings, and with individuals with other disabilities, such as those with a visual impairment or a learning disability.

Communication Access Realtime Translation: CART Services for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing People

Captioned media services is the process of embedding text on film as well as other types of media and has become a widely-used accommodation in postsecondary settings for deaf individuals. Research studies confirm that captions used on different media sources such as film, television, and online videos not only benefit deaf individuals but also emerging readers, ESL/ELL students, students with learning disabilities, individuals with ADD/ADHD, and many more.

With advancements in technology, entities have a variety of approaches to consider when a need for captioned media arises. The following resources support the production of accurate, time-synced captions to ensure equitable access to media.

Remote CART

Remote CART is done with the trained operator at a remote location. A voice connection such as a telephone, cellphone, or computer microphone is used to send the voice to the operator, and the realtime text is transmitted back over a modem, Internet, or other data connection.

Special Topics: Captioned Media Services

Why Captions Provide Equal Access

Creating Offline Captions

wearable captioning device is that displays text and graphed emotions, making it easier for hearing impaired people to communicate with others. The system consists of a band that can be worn on user’s hand, an array microphone clip worn on user’s clothing, a special app for smartphone or tablet, and a charging unit.

Video remote interpreting (VRI) is a fee-based service that delivers interpreting services, often on demand, through a web-based platform on a computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone. VRI can be used effectively to fulfill last-minute, urgent requests for an interpreter offer interpreting in the absence of in-person interpreters, especially in rural areas; provide interpreters with specific skill sets (e.g., deaf interpreters, trilingual interpreters); or meet a deaf person’s communication preferences. VRI is used in a variety of settings, such as one-on-one appointments, group meetings, academic classes, campus events, virtual learning, presentations, and conferences. VRI services can be provided through an in-house staff member, an individual freelancer, or an agency contractor.

Burned–in captioning:

Captions that is permanently visible in a video, film, or other medium

Remote Communication Access for Those Who are Deaf

Those with hearing loss may need accommodations to access communication for medical appointments, attorney meetings, educational opportunities, utility companies, employment meetings, training programs, press conferences and public announcements, or various social services.

Microsoft Translator

Microsoft Translator is another automated captioning program that also offers translations and transcripts in numerous languages, which can support online learning for deaf students. These solutions are often free.

Types of Captioning

The National Centre of Captioning (United States) has divided captioning into 11 types. The type of captioning used in this research study is pop-on, prerecorded captioning, as the captioning was done at a later stage with pop-on effect addition using studio pinnacle software version-14. The 11 types of captioning are as follows:

  1. Prerecorded (off-line) captioning

  2. 2 .Pop-on captions

  3. Center placement pop-on captions

  4. Roll-up captions

  5. Timed roll-up captions

  6. Live (on-line) captioning

  7. Real-time captioning

  8. Real-time dictionary

  9. Live-display captions

  10. Closed captions

  11. Open captions.

Planning for CART and Effective Communication

Select an experienced CART writer. Generally, a provider with national CRR/CRC certifications will bring a high level of skill and accuracy. Consider audio hearing access technology: hearing loops, FM, or infrared. It can be challenging and fatiguing to read every captioned word; both audio and visual solutions create the ideal.Send the CART writer copies of presentation materials (Powerpoint presentations, handouts, speeches) as much in advance as possible. This is especially crucial for names and technical terms that need to be correct and spelled properly. Consider sending the caption writer a glossary, bibliography, or staff/attendee list. If you have one, send the room layout chart.Clarify that you want CART on large screen when viewed by many people

Amara's award-winning technology enables you to caption and subtitle any video for free. For larger subtitling projects the platform makes it easy to manage teams of translators. And you can always purchase high-quality captions or translations from our passionate team of professional linguists.

Amara can help make your videos accessible to the world!

Video Remote Sign Language Interpreting Services

meetings with hearing-impaired clients and business associates, your VRI interpreter will be ready to start translating your spoken English to Sign Language. They translate sign language replies back to you in spoken English in real-time.

Interact-Streamer™ is a secure captioning, translation, messaging and document sharing website

121 Captions

Software for Google Glass that can provide remote captions via Google Glass which means deaf people

Deaf Interpreter Phone Service – Video Remote Interpreter

The deaf caller will use a video telephone & link to a hearing person. The interpreter will sign what the hearing party says, and the deaf person will speak.

These automatic captions are generated by machine learning algorithms, so the quality of the captions may vary. We encourage creators to add professional captions first. YouTube is constantly improving its speech recognition technology. However, automatic captions might misrepresent the spoken content due to mispronunciations, accents, dialects, or background noise. You should always review automatic captions and edit any parts that haven't been properly transcribed.

Captioned Speech-to-Text Telephones

Captioned phones are ideal for seniors or people who are hard of hearing. The Captioned Telephone is an amplified phone which works like any other telephone with one important addition: It displays every word the caller says throughout the conversation. Captioned phone users can listen to the caller, and can also read the written captions in the bright display window.


CaptionCall has a sleek design, state-of-the-art captioning and has a telecoil loop connection for people who wear hearing aids. CaptionCall allows users to save conversations and save previous volume settings to maximize their time and create efficiency. CaptionCall Mobile is their mobile version.

CapTel 840i

The CapTel 840i is a Voice Carry-over Telephone. It provides real-time captioning during phone calls. The CapTel 840i provides the captions through a high speed internet connection on Voice-Over IP (VOIP) telephone lines. All calls are routed through a captioning service center, where someone captions the conversation for the individual.

CapTel 840

This is a CapTel 840 is a voice carry-over telephone. This telephone the text that is being communicated over the phone. This product can transcribe audio into text. Technical specifications include: transcribed text can be deactivated at any time, voicemails are transcribed, font sizes and colors are customizable, compatible with wifi, caller ID. speed dial for people one may call frequently, the volume of phone is up to 40dB. Individuals who have a hearing, cognitive limitation that requires them to access phones to accomplish essential job functions may benefit from this device.


ClearCaptions has an amplified home phone that displays captions in near real-time on a large 8-inch color touchscreen. The ClearCaptions Mobile app offers call captioning and a personalized ClearCaptions Number.

CapTel 2400i

The CapTel 2400i is a Voice Carry-over Telephone. It provides real-time captioning during phone calls. The CapTel 2400i provides the captions through a high speeds internet connection. All calls are automatically routed through a captioning service center. For people who prefer touch-screen technology, this has a large colorful display and dial-by picture capability.

CapTel 880i Captioned Phone

Designed for people who are comfortable with a traditional-style telephone, the CapTel 880i Captioned Phone shows word-for-word captions on a large, easy-to-read 10" display screen.


CapTel phones include a large screen

to read the transcribed conversation.

CapTel is a user-friendly captioned telephone that summons captions at the push of a button. Some models are made for people with low vision, too. Hamilton CapTel Mobile Apps is their smartphone version.

For people with hearing loss, talking on a standard phone can be challenging, even with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Telephones typically do not transmit the full frequency range of speech, which can present a challenge for anyone, but especially people who don't hear well Fortunately, captioned phones and captioned smartphone apps can help make it easier to talk on the phone. Thanks to government funding, these phones and apps can be obtained for either free or steeply discounted .When a call is made, the captioned phone (landline or via the app) automatically connects to a Captioned Telephone Service (CTS). When the other person answers the phone, the caller hears whatever they say just like with a traditional telephone call. At the same time, the CTS uses advanced voice recognition technology and specially trained communications assistants to transcribe everything that is said into captions, which appear almost simultaneously on the phone display.

Google Hangouts

Google has replaced Talk with Google Hangouts. It is a web-based and mobile video service. Translators and interpreters can easily host a video meeting with up to 12 participants. All participants will need a Google+ account. For those camera shy, it is simple turn off the video to allow audio to stream through. Other features include text chat and sharing of pictures and videos.

Google Drive

Translators create loads of files and need to access files from different locations. Google Drive app is an indispensable tool providing the ease to access files stored in the cloud. Google Drive makes it convenient to collaborate with colleagues on projects as it allows users to share files and save in the cloud or view offline. It's powerful office companion, letting you create, edit, quickly access recent files and spreadsheets, and presentations.


Evernote has been dubbed a digital filing cabinet. Translators and interpreters need to save and store heaps of information. Evernote is a brilliant app utilizing the save-it-for-later (or just in time) concept. The OCR feature is fantastic allowing searchable text in images. It is easy to get started and use and you can’t go wrong with little knowledge of how the app works. To take full advantage and be amazed by the capabilities head over to the Evernote website for some tutorials (


Flipboard app helps you stay on top of the news. The app acts as your virtual personal magazine allowing you to read RSS feeds and connect with social networks. Your interests are the front page. It is simply beautiful. Once you're all signed in, Flipboard presents you with an intuitive layout of your social networks and some default news categories to browse. Touching a panel lets you browse through the default categories. There's an enormous amount of content to choose and customize for your specific interests


You can download articles for listening offline, make playlists and personalize your interests. The only downside is that you can't listen to just one news source--but variety is the spice of life.


Dropbox is an awesome service you can use to back up your files to the cloud, sync them between computers, and share with your clients and friends. Particularly useful for confidential information because Dropbox encrypts everything you upload/download over a secure HTTPS connection. It’s a great storage service with much more capabilities. Other uses include being able to print files from any computer, use it to quickly install Android apps, host a website and much more


This app can be an incredible tool to turn your smartphone into a fully automated superphone. How it works is you can script actions for your phone to perform when specific conditions are met. Choose from 200+ actions! Tasks include LED flash when you receive a text message, dim your phones brightness at specific times of day or read text in the car.


when you need to define a word and unable to connect to the internet the Dictionary app is a lifesaver. It’s a free English dictionary with over 2,000,000 definitions and synonyms from and If your native language is not English and need help with pronunciation-even non-natives need help- - the audio pronunciations is superb. The app is also splendid for finding idioms, word origin and history and spelling suggestions and search by voice. If you are a specialized legal or medical translator


The Snapseed app is a tool to transform your ordinary photos into extraordinary. With just a little bit of a learning curve to use the incredible features, you can tweak your photos to perfection. Edit photos using a gesture-based swipe method. This app straddles the line between full-fledged image editor and filter app giving you the control over how filters (examples: Drama, Vintage and Tilt-Shift) and effects are applied to your images including borders and finishing touches.

Swift Keyboard

This app will help you type faster and easier. It has a nice writing interface and is personalized and provides an accurate autocorrect. It is also available in 61 languages


Captions are the words displayed on a television screen that follow along with the audio portion of the program. Viewers who are hearing-impaired can read the captions to follow the dialogue and action at the same time. Captions are words displayed on a television, computer, mobile device, or movie screen, providing the speech or sound portion of a program or video via text. Captions allow viewers to follow the dialogue and the action of a program simultaneously. For people with hearing loss who have residual hearing,captions can make the spoken words easier to understand—because hearing, likevision, is influenced by our expectations. (When you have an idea of what someone might be about to say, his or her speech may seem more clear). Captions can also provide information about who is speaking or about sound effects that be important to understanding a news story, political event, or the plot.Captions are created from the program’s script or audio file. A caption writertranslates the dialogue into captions and makes sure the words appear in sync with the audio. Computer software encodes the captioning information and combines it with the audio and video to create a new master tape or digital file of the program. The captions should appear near the bottom or top of thescreen—not in the middle, where misplaced captions can cover the newscaster’s face, a basketball hoop or a quarterback passing the football.

Types Of Captions Captions can be "open" or "closed." Open captions appear on every television set. Closed captions require a set-top decoder or built-in decoder circuitry. Since closed-caption technology is so widely available now, open-caption technology is rarely used.

Open and closed captions

Captions may be “open” or “closed.” Open captions are always in view and cannot be turned off by the user, whereas closed captions can be turned on and off by the user (for example, by changing the menu settings on the TV’s remote).Closed

captioning is available on digital television sets, including high-definition television sets, manufactured after July 1, 2002. Some digital captioning menus allow the viewer to control the caption display, including font style, text size and color, and background color.Closed captioning is also available on videos viewed on the internet.

Theater captioning

Movie Theaters

Theaters that show digital first run movies will offer an assistive device for an individual to see the captions, such as captioned glasses or a caption device that fits in a cup